Nutrition

Type 2 Diabetes Care Plan

Reviewed by

Shifa Fathima

Type 2 Diabetes Care Plan: Goals And What To Expect

Any chronic condition would require a carefully devised care plan that would help in the long-term management of symptoms. The care plan for type 2 diabetes works in the same way. Since diabetes is a lifelong condition, it becomes supremely important for the people living with it and their caregivers to be aware of the ins and outs of the condition so that they can manage the symptoms in the best possible manner. A diabetes care plan is often customized to meet the needs of a person as everyone has different symptoms, different thresholds for highs and lows, and varying parameters. 

The goals, however, of the treatment plan would more or less be centered around the same broad concept – optimal management of the blood sugar levels. 

What is a diabetes type 2 care plan?

To stay healthy and ensure the longevity of the functioning of the organs in the body, sticking to the goals decided upon by you and your team of doctors would be the most important aspect. Anyone living with type 2 diabetes needs to take good care of themselves holistically to maintain a well-rounded and well-functioning lifestyle. The team of doctors would initially assess your needs and would then help you come up with proper treatment and a nursing care plan for diabetes mellitus that would be best suited to the different aspects of your life like – your sleep cycle, your job/academic routine, and your support system, etc. 

The care plan would need to include the following:

  • Medications
  • Insulin dosage via injection, if needed
  • Regular check-ups
  • Lifestyle management – diet, sleep, and exercise
  • Follow-ups with other specialist doctors, etc.

Recognizing the need for customized care plans for each person with diabetes, medical centers are placing more importance on this aspect as it significantly helps in improving the quality of life of the person living with it. The care plan can be reviewed regularly to see what works and what does not and you can make changes accordingly. 

What is a care plan?

Care plans are exactly what they sound like – plans made to take care of different aspects/ medical conditions/ lifestyle etc in a person’s life. These are usually made when there is a significant and drastic change in one’s life. A diabetes mellitus care plan is a tool made in tandem with the person diagnosed with the condition and their team of doctors to help in smoothing the everyday management of T2D and its symptoms. 

Particularly for this condition, a care plan becomes vital as it is challenging and affects the person even in the long term. Even if you are aware of what diabetes entails, you may not be fully aware of all the nuanced aspects associated with this condition. There are several major and minor changes that you will have to make in your daily life and even at the macro level. At least, in the beginning, you might require some help to make those care plans for yourself. 

Knowing or having an outline of what you need to be doing can help make things seem more under control. Similarly, having a plan to deal with the unexpected aspects of the condition can also make dealing with it less overwhelming. 

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What is the aim of a type 2 diabetes care plan?

The nursing care plan for diabetes mellitus can allow people to recognize and manage their symptoms better. It becomes an important tool and a guide for self to be able to navigate through situations that may seem tough. In certain difficult times that the condition throws at you, you may often feel unprepared, a care plan and things being charted out will reduce the feelings of loss of control and uncertainty regarding what needs to be done. Sharing the plan with other members in the house, colleagues, close friends, etc would be an added advantage as they could also act as a support system in your time of need. 

The primary aim would be to empower the person to be able to manage their symptoms. This shall, in turn, lead to the achievement of another goal which would be a long-term improvement in health and well-being. 

This plan is devised by taking into account several personal factors of the person:

  • Their age and gender
  • Daily routine
  • Eating habits
  • Sleeping patterns
  • Physical abilities
  • Cognitive abilities
  • Social situation
  • Economic background
  • Cultural background
  • Personality traits 

These factors, and a few more, can be taken into account while creating this nursing care plan for diabetes. 

Who creates and administers the care plan?

Since type 2 diabetes is a condition that is not just limited to one or two aspects of the body and health, it requires a team of medical experts who could be closely involved in setting up and reviewing the plans of action. While trying to understand all the various aspects of this condition, you can take inputs from different specialists like:

  • Endocrinologists
  • Your general physician
  • A dietician/ nutritionist
  • Ophthalmologists
  • Podiatrists
  • Pharmacists
  • Gynaecologists
  • Mental Health professionals, etc

Along with this, also make sure that you schedule regular heart, kidney, eye, and foot check-ups as diabetes is known to play a major role in affecting the optimal functioning of these organs.

What should a diabetes care plan include?

In your diabetes mellitus care plan, you can make sure to add all the necessary information that will help you prevent long-term complications and issues. With the support and guidance from the healthcare team, you can get all your doubts resolved and use their resources to come up with a suitable plan. The team can also guide you through any changes that may be required over the years. Be sure to include the following in your plan:

  1. Treatment goals – The primary aspect that needs to be included in the care plan would be the goals expected from the treatment. Discuss the objectives of the plan and set realistic goals to achieve them
  2. Monitoring blood sugars – To achieve the treatment goals, continuous and regular monitoring of blood sugars would be vital. Check sugars, pre and post breakfast, pre and post lunch, pre and post dinner, and at 3 am. Also, keep checking random blood sugars throughout the day as well. 
  3. Treatment for hyper and hypoglycemia – Understand the typical symptoms for the two, understand how you feel when you are dealing with highs and lows, and prepare a plan for both conditions. 
  4. Insulin Therapy – There can be different modes of administering insulin – the pen, syringe, pump, medicine, etc. Check your insulin to carb ratio and plan. 
  5. Diet and exercise – To include these aspects in the diabetes care plan would be vital. Since T2D is a lifestyle condition, managing these factors that affect lifestyle is key. 

How to prepare for an appointment?

Schedule an appointment with your doctor every 3 months after your routine HbA1c checkups. Prepare for the appointment by:

  • Keeping your blood sugar readings handy. It would be beneficial if you wrote them down time-wise so that your doctor could adjust the bolus and basal doses accordingly.
  • Have all your questions written down so that you don’t forget to ask them
  • Talk about any irregularities that you have noticed or any difficulties in the management of the symptoms
  • Discuss any changes in the routine that you would like or that have happened organically so that the nursing care plan for diabetes mellitus can be revised. 

Does insurance cover a type 2 diabetes care plan?

In India, the insurance policies regarding the treatment of T2D are not outlined structurally. However, there are several policies by different companies that have recognized the need to add this condition to their policies as the treatment and management of diabetes is not cheap. Check the individual policies of different companies to be able to find the one best suited for you and your needs. 

Bottomline

A care plan is essential to understand and manage the complicated and erratic symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Together, with your healthcare team, you can create a plan tailored to your needs. This will help you predict the symptoms and manage them better, especially during difficult times. Include the treatment goals, insulin therapy, diet, exercise, and any other information you might require in your care plans. Keep a watch on the costs and any insurance benefits that you can claim.

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