type 1 diabetes
Metabolic Health

What is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is a disease that makes the pancreas produce either a small amount of insulin or no insulin at all. Insulin is a hormone that requires glucose to enter cells and produce energy to support the body's functions. 

Food is the source of glucose for the body; glucose gives the required energy. After consuming food, our body converts the food particles into energy that the bloodstream will absorb. Once the glucose level increases, it triggers the pancreas to produce insulin which controls the sugar level in our body. If there is less insulin, there will be a high amount of sugar that stays in the bloodstream. Type 1 diabetes causes heavy damage and can even cause a life-threatening situation.

Causes of Types 1 Diabetes

The primary cause of type 1 diabetes causes is still unknown. Generally, according to the research, the body has an immune system that fights against unknown viruses or bacteria that might have mistakenly destroyed the cells which produce insulin.

Other Causes

1. Genesis

2. Risk of getting viruses

Symptoms of Diabetes

The signs of Type 1 Diabetes are highly precise to analyse, and once they appear, it becomes intense. It will take months for the symptoms to show up even after type 1 diabetes enters your system. Systems are visible only when all the beta cells are destroyed in the body.

  • Dehydration, uttermost thirst
  • Extreme hunger
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach upset
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Improper vision
  • Heavy breathing problem
  • Mood swing
  • Vagina infections
  • Skin infections
  • Frequent urination

Signs of Type 1 Diabetes that you should consider seriously

  • Body shaking
  • Constant confusion 
  • Heavy breathing
  • Fruity breath
  • Impaired consciousness

Long-term Obstacle includes

  • Heart diseases
  • Stroke
  • Blurred eyesight
  • Kidney damage
  • Loss of fingers or toes
  • Loss of teeth
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Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

Below factors are considered the type 1 diabetes risk factors

  • Family history – If your parents or ancestors have diabetes, the probability of you getting the type 1 disease is more.
  • Circumstances – The environment has many malicious viruses that affect our bodies and cause many illnesses.
  • Autoantibodies – If you identify yourself as having autoantibodies, the probability of you having diabetes is higher.
  • Geography –  Few countries are listed in the top 1 category affecting diabetes. So, if you stay in one of those countries, you might also have diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 diabetes complications can be categorised into two types – Short- and long-term complications. Type 1 diabetes complications are associated with maintaining poor blood sugar levels.

Short-term Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Hypoglycemia: If our body produces insulin at a higher level, it causes low blood sugar, which is known as hypoglycemia. It also occurs when we don't follow scheduled insulin intake after consuming food. 

Hypoglycemia also has various stages. If it is cured early, the health will be fine; otherwise, it will lead to heavy complications that might cause life-threatening issues. 

Diabetic Ketoacidosis occurs if the person is affected by type 1 diabetes and due to lack of insulin production in the body. It is the first and foremost indication for the body regarding type 1 diabetes.

Most people will not be aware of the development of diabetes in their bodies. Type 1 diabetes symptoms occur only after all the beta cells are destroyed and immediate actions are taken to control it. When the body has no insulin, it automatically uses the fat to give the body enough energy since glucose will not be available. Once the fat is broken, ketones will be released, which makes acidic blood, causing diabetic ketoacidosis.

Diagnostic Test for Type 1 Diabetes

If there is a higher blood sugar level, there are a lot of type 1 diabetes symptoms that should be shown in your body. In this case, the below tests have to be taken to know which parts are affected and what kind of diabetes mellitus treatment is required to bring it under control.

a) Glycated Haemoglobin (A1C) Test

The glycated haemoglobin is a test that determines the blood sugar level of your body by analysing the protein carried over red blood cells. It detects the sugar level content included in haemoglobin. 

Normal - less than 5.7%  

Pre-diabetes - 5.7% to 6.4%

Diabetes - 6.5% or higher

b) Fasting Plasma Glucose

To take this test, fasting is a must. People are not allowed to consume food before the test. This tests the blood sugar level content in the body.

Normal - less than 100 mg/dl  

Prediabetes - 100 mg/dl to 125 mg/dl

Diabetes - 126 mg/dl or higher  

c) Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

The oral glucose tolerance test can be taken after consuming food for 2 hours. This is to analyse the blood sugar level processing in the body.

Normal: less than 140 mg/dl  

Prediabetes: 140 mg/dl to 199 mg/dl

Diabetes: more than equal to 200 mg/dl

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

Below is the treatment we can take if we are affected by type 1 diabetes.

  • Taking insulin
  • Carbohydrate counting
  • Monitoring of blood sugar
  • Eating healthy foods
  • Exercising regularly
  • Keeping weight under control

Blood sugar levels should be maintained normally to avoid type 1 diabetes complications. The range should be between 80 and 130 mg/dl. 

Bottomline

To maintain diabetes under control, we need to monitor the blood sugar content frequently, and insulin therapy, scheduled treatment must be taken whenever necessary. Glucose monitoring is also a good practice to avoid complications. Healthy eating is a must. Taking carbohydrates and monitoring them should be frequent. High fibre foods help control diabetes. Daily workouts, exercises and physical activity help boost health. These are all the factors that can help us maintain a good blood sugar level if we have type 1 diabetes. Also read about the diabetes in India.

FAQs 

Can one suddenly develop Type 1 Diabetes?

Yes, there are a lot of factors affecting the body's sugar level.

Is Type 1 Diabetes fatal?

If the blood sugar level is not maintained properly, it can lead to life-threatening issues.

Can someone be born with Type 1 Diabetes?

Yes, Type 1 diabetes can be genetic.

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