Metabolic Health

Pathogenesis & Pathophysiology of Diabetes - Sugar.Fit

Reviewed by

Shifa Fathima

Pathogenesis & Pathophysiology of Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition characterized by abnormal hyperglycemia caused by either a lack of insulin secretion or a combination of insulin resistance and insufficient insulin production to compensate. Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune process that destroys pancreatic islet B cells, and the people with type 1 diabetes are prone to ketoacidosis. While type 2 diabetes is the most common, it is caused by insulin resistance with a deficiency in compensatory insulin production. Diabetes may cause major health consequences, including various illnesses or disorders that impact many systems and can prove to be fatal. 

What Is The Pathogenesis Of The Normal Human Body?

In people that have a healthy functioning body, the pancreas, an organ positioned beneath the liver and stomach, secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon into the circulation to manage the quantity of glucose in the body. The release of insulin into the blood decreases the amount of blood glucose (simple sugars from diet) by enabling glucose to enter the body cells, where it is digested. If blood glucose levels fall too low, the pancreas secretes glucagon to encourage the release of glucose from the liver. Right after a meal, glucose and amino acids are absorbed straight into the circulation, and blood glucose levels increase significantly. The spike in blood glucose levels stimulates key cells in the pancreas, called beta cells, to manufacture insulin, which floods into the circulation. Within 20 minutes after a meal insulin increases to its maximal level.

Insulin permits glucose to enter cells in the body, notably muscle and liver cells. Here, insulin and other hormones determine whether glucose will be burnt for energy or saved for future use. When insulin levels are high, the liver stops generating glucose and stores it in various forms until the body needs it again. As blood glucose levels approach their peak, the pancreas slows the synthesis of insulin (approximately 2-4 hours after a meal both blood glucose and insulin are at low levels) (about 2-4 hours after a meal both blood glucose and insulin are at low levels).

What Is The Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is often caused by the development of insulin resistance, which is accompanied by compensatory hyperinsulinemia, followed by increasing beta-cell damage, which results in decreased insulin production and hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors that impair beta-cell activity and tissue insulin sensitivity (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and pancreas). 

Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body either does not create enough insulin or when the cells disregard the insulin. It generally starts with insulin resistance, a condition in which the cells do not adequately utilize insulin. The pancreas progressively loses its capacity to make insulin as the requirement for it increases.

When glucose accumulates in the blood instead of being used by cells, it may have far-reaching health consequences such as heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. Diabetes is the primary cause of adult kidney failure, non-traumatic lower-limb amputations, and new occurrences of blindness.

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What Is The Pathophysiology Of A Normal Human Body?

When blood glucose levels rise, pancreatic beta cells normally produce insulin. Glucose is constantly required by the brain in order for proper functioning to occur. Diabetes pathogenesis includes plasma glucose concentrations telling the central nervous system to utilize energy reserves. It is based on cerebral blood flow and tissue integrity, arterial plasma glucose, the rate at which plasma glucose concentrations decline, and other metabolic fuels that are accessible. 

Diabetes pathophysiology is complicated and includes multiple hormones (i.e., insulin, glucagons, and growth). Because of their interaction with the liver and participation in renal function, the pathogenic processes of this illness are difficult to characterize and vary greatly across individuals.

Pathophysiology Of Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is often characterized by the development of insulin resistance, which is followed by compensatory hyperinsulinemia, which results in reduced insulin production and hyperglycemia. A combination of hereditary and environmental factors impairs beta-cell function and tissue insulin sensitivity, resulting in type 2 diabetes (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and pancreas).

Type 2 diabetes develops when the body either does not produce enough insulin or when the cells do not utilize it completely. It usually begins with insulin resistance, a disease in which the cells do not use insulin properly. As the need for insulin grows, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce it.

When glucose builds up in the blood instead of being utilized by cells, it may lead to serious health problems such as heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. Adult renal failure, non-traumatic lower-limb amputations, and new cases of blindness are all caused by diabetes.

Bottomline

Diabetes may cause major health consequences, including various illnesses or disorders that impact many systems. Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune process that destroys pancreatic islet B cells. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body fails to react to insulin as it produces insufficient insulin. Diabetes has both a hereditary and an environmental component in its development. Understanding the etiology of diabetes is critical for diabetes prevention and therapy.

Diabetes is the primary cause of adult kidney failure, non-traumatic lower-limb amputations, and new occurrences of blindness. Diabetes pathophysiology is complicated and includes multiple hormones (i.e., insulin, glucagons, and growth). A combination of hereditary and environmental factors impairs beta-cell function and tissue insulin sensitivity. 

FAQs

What is the major pathophysiological difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

Due to the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes, the body generates no insulin, but type 2 diabetes occurs when the body fails to react to insulin. After a period of insulin resistance, the body is prone to produce inadequate insulin in type 2 diabetes. High blood sugar levels cause issues such as diabetes-related disorders due to a lack of insulin production, insufficient production, or the body's inability to react to insulin.

What is the major Pathogenesis difference between type1 and type 2?

These two types of diabetes seem to have unique and independent pathogenetic processes. Diabetes has both a hereditary and an environmental component in its development. Type 1 diabetes has a weaker genetic relationship, although its correlation with HLA antigens is widely documented. A viral infection may be the environmental trigger for Type 1 diabetes, while urbanization, obesity, physical inactivity, and stress may be the environmental triggers for Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune illness in which beta cell damage may occur for years before clinical diabetes is identified. Due to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, a combination of relative insulin shortage or a malfunction in insulin release and insulin resistance occurs. Hyperglycemia exacerbates the issue of beta cell deficiency and insulin resistance. Understanding the etiology of diabetes is critical for diabetes prevention and therapy.

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